The Intuitive-Connections Network

Current Update as of July 21, 2005 

Inspired by The Edgar Cayce Institute for Intuitive Studies

Edited by HENRY REED, Ph.D.

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( Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc.)

Book Summary by Jenna Cowles-Ludwig

     Remote viewing (RV) is the ability to see things with the mind's eye that are blocked from normal sight by physical constraints.

Because of impeccable, scientific experiments conducted in the late 1970's - performed occasionally by the very skeptics that sought to disprove them - remote viewing has been established as a viable human skill.

There were plenty of hindrances to promoting psychic research when these experiments were initially conducted.

For one, the physical scientists, in general, were skeptical of the ability to empirically prove soft science (e.g., psychology) theorems, let alone those of a paranormal nature that had no scientific backing whatsoever.

Also, there was then, as now, a cultural distrust of any skill that was perceived to be outside the proverbial box, tagged "normal." Because of those types of methodological and social prejudices, few scientists at that time were willing to be associated with paranormal research.

This often left the burden of proof on the psychic or the extremist, willing to carry the torch well beyond the limits of actual verification into a magic realm where psychic gifts were bestowed on the chosen few.

Historically, the supernatural charging of ones psychic powers, on the one hand, and the opposition to legitimizing real human phenomena, on the other, has caused both sides to resist looking at normal psychic abilities such as remote viewing with both discernment and open speculation.

If open-minded observation of psychic phenomena were to happen more frequently and those on both sides were willing let down their cherished defenses, the resulting transformation of human consciousness might expand human thinking well beyond its present limits.

Experiments that diverge from the authoritarian, subject/researcher format, allow an alliance between the two sides that further a deeper understanding and sharing of how a person uses their psychic abilities.

Conducting boring, repetitious experiments has a negative effect on a person's remote viewing accuracy.

Although a person can certainly describe what they are seeing, remote viewing is better communicated by art rather than language, and is understood to depend more on the functioning of the right, or imaging, hemisphere of the brain.

Remote viewing is not dependent on linear time, i.e., a person can see targets into the future that are later chosen by "chance." In general, the remote viewing of someone's mind is dependent on the targeted person being open to having her thoughts "viewed."

Thanks to innovative experiments, these kinds of facts about the mental foundation and workings of remote viewing were discovered, and the fiction that surrounded it has less of a hold on our thoughts today.

Russell Targ and Harold (Hal) Puthoff's remote viewing research began on May 29, 1973 at the then Stanford Research Institute (SRI), Menlo Park, California. The first subject (and sometime co-researcher) was an artist and psychic by the name of Ingo Swann.

The project was dubbed SCANATE. In the beginning, Swann was given nothing but geographical coordinates of latitude and longitude, and asked to describe the intersected geographical area.

His narratives and drawings of landmarks, waterways, mountains, roadways, buildings, trees etc were so accurate that they spurred further scientific investigation into this newly re-discovered human, psychic potential.

Two days later, on June 1, 1973, the amazing psychic - as well as ex-police commissioner and vice-mayor of Burbank, California - Pat Price was added to the team as a remote viewing research subject.

Pat's descriptions of places were so accurate and so detailed with respect to the elements and patterns he mentally perceived at a distance that they boggled even the sensibilities of researchers that had already accepted the validity of the process, based on earlier experimentation.

Everyone has the innate, psychic potential to practice remote viewing. This assertion is based on hundreds of remote viewing experiments conducted on over twenty experienced and inexperienced research subjects.

Not only are we all equipped by nature to practice remote viewing should we desire to develop the ability, but the more difficult the challenge, the greater are the odds of accuracy. The early RV experiments were designed as increasingly difficult for this reason.

They were also set up as double-blind experiments (neither the subject nor person conducting the experiment were privy to the target location until after the viewing) to protect from suspicion of fraud or parlor-trick magic.

In one such experimental model, a subject was secluded with the experimenter while a target location was chosen at random and a target team of independent judges, watching each other for any signs of trickery, drove to and then observed the target site for the prescribed 15 minutes.

The isolated subject, still being observed by the experimenter, was given 30 minutes to record and draw his RV impressions. Later, the subject and researcher would visit the site to compare the remote viewer's impressions with the actual location.

As a final safeguard, the victory or defeat of the experiment was determined by a researcher not directly associated with the experiment in any other capacity except to make the final judgment call as to the viewer's accuracy.

To further Obfuscate results and protect against manipulating outcomes, a series of experiments were performed in a row, and the unlabeled results were given to one of the more doubting of the researchers to verify against the targets, listing all the results at each location from most descriptive to least descriptive.

This the researcher did alone without any of the experimental team present. The correct matches were then measured against chance expectation. Often these trials measured much higher than chance and were considered to be outstanding remote viewing experiments.

They were later published in a well-know journal of that time, Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

At the same time, researchers in the USSR were developing the theory that ESP occurs within the relationship between low-frequency ranges of electromagnetic fields and the mind's filtering and dissemination of information.

The nine experiments, using Patrick Price as the remote viewing subject were of the double-blind variety described above. They were amazingly accurate - a combined 35,000:1 odds! - and were published in Nature, a British journal of science.

During these experiments, researchers noticed that while Price was able to describe physical locations down to the detail, even correctly naming some structures, he was less correct in describing the function of certain items.

Over time, this same mental behavior was observed in other RV research subjects at SRI. This led the team to believe that there are specific mental behaviors that occur during remote viewing.

According to Price, who, unlike Swann, was not a proclaimed psychic, remote viewing was nothing to get excited about and required no special tools or occult gifts while he practiced it.

His philosophy could be stated as the idea that anyone who believes she can do it has the main tool to begin remote viewing in earnest. Once, while flying over the SRI grounds, Price was directed to RV an illustration drawn by a man below.

Price drew correctly a moon and stars, but added a cross-like figure not included in the picture. This turned out to be the cross the man was wearing inside the shirt where the picture lay in his pocket!

No one could actually see the cross until the man pulled it out of his shirt later, but Price picked it up during the remote viewing experiment.

In another RV experiment with Price, he correctly describes colors of flowers, clothing that a particular target team member was wearing, and a dirt pathway that is lined by trees.

As he describes these scenes, the experimenter, having no knowledge of the target location, asks general questions of clarification such as what the periphery surrounding the location looks like.

This type of questioning seemed to help Price to get a better picture of what he was seeing, feeling, hearing, and sensing. At one point, Price states that he feels, not sees, something moist and that he hears an airplane.

It would appear that his senses were fully engaged during remote viewing. On the other hand, although Price described a place with lots of flowers, he never mentioned anything about their scent.

In the twenty SRI experiments performed by the end of 1973 with Ingo Swann and Patrick Price, it was scientifically proven that they observed places, people and things that distance, alone, would have kept from their "normal" perceptions.

It had become evident that certain laws governed RV. If these were not physical laws - as yet, there were none to be found - then mental and other characteristics of perceivers themselves needed to be studied.

An experiment was devised in which individuals whose psychic abilities had been proven in paranormal research and beginners to the process were put in two subject groups. Two groups of three with respect to demographics such as age and interests were formed.

The number of research subjects was kept small to allow time and resources for very stringent physical and psychological testing - such as astronauts would endure! - and follow-up. The medical tests were performed at Stanford University Medical Center and at the Palo Alto Medical Clinic.

The main criteria for the learners were that they be smart and affable. The group consisted of two mathematicians from SRI and a photographer friend of Russell Targ, Hella Hammid. Hella's RV capabilities proved to be exceptionally high and were comparable to Price's.

In setting the stage for a relaxed transition into the new territory of remote viewing, - prior to actual experimentation - Hella was allowed feedback to her target responses via walkie-talkie. She accurately described the target scene in her very first trial RV experiment.

This phenomenon, sometimes commonly referred to as beginner's luck, is known as first-time effect by the scientific research community. Several trials later, her outcomes were still looking good.

The actual experiments with Hella, modeling the nine Patrick Price RV experiments were ready to begin. There were only two changes to the protocol of the original nine experiments.

One, it had been proven in the experiments with Price that covering the research area in copper shielding did not diminish RV accuracy, so that technique was not used. Two, since researchers had noticed during the trials that subjects began to tire when left to RV for 30 minutes, the time was cut to 15 minutes for the actual experiments.

Several salient factors of remote viewing came out of these nine RV experiments with Hella. The first and most obvious is that beginners at paranormal research can be as skilled at exhibiting RV capabilities as the more seasoned subjects.

Also, basing their observations on Hella's responses as well as those of Ingo Swann and Pat Price in the previous 20 experiments, experimenters noted that all subjects were more accurate when drawing their impressions than when verbalizing them.

Although Hella was obviously as skilled a remote viewer as Price, they each exhibited a difference in approach that resulted in different result patterns. Pat had more first-place hits due to his penchant for full description, but this over analyzing also caused him to miss two targets completely.

Being more guarded in her descriptions, Hella never missed a target completely, in that she never ranked below a second place hit, but got fewer first place hits than Pat. These preferences were not measured as differences in degree, but rather showed that remote viewers exhibit diversity in style.

The third veteran with proven ESP abilities to be included in the Swann and Price subject group was Duane Elgin, an SRI research analyst. Duane's psychic forte was the ability to foresee future, cultural evolutionary patterns.

He attributed his success as a paranormal research subject to his unique, intuitive ability to be aware of faint changes in his "body-awareness." The experiments with Duane and the remaining two in the learner group were cut to four sessions each due to time constraints.

Ingo's were also cut to four. Duane's and Ingo's eight remote viewings were then compared to the two, remaining learners' eight experiments. Duane had one first place hit and three in second place.

In the first experiment, and his only first place, Duane correctly viewed Russell feeling a "metal plate" in a transit station at the exact time that Russell placed his hand on the item - a metal map affixed to the wall.

Three minutes later, Duane saw a complete change in the target team's circumstances, and at the exact time he noted this, they had boarded a train and were leaving the station.

In another experiment with Duane, his verbal description was wrong, but his drawing of the target site was correct. And he was not alone in exhibiting this dichotomy between pictured and spoken target descriptions.

As mentioned above, most correct RV observations are descriptions of a spatial/characteristic nature rather than an analytical/functional one. The total assessment for Elgin and Swann's eight tests ranked at odds of 2,500:1.

The last of this set of experiments - four each - were with learners Marshall Pease and Patricia Cole, both SRI mathematicians. There were two first-place hits and two second place, but they still ranked at odds of only 12.5:1.

Patricia exhibited another "first-time effect" with a direct hit on her first experiment. In another experiment, her miss on interpretation, but hit with her pictured representation suggested once again that remote viewing is in large part a skill that utilizes specialized brain activity.

After the above series of experiments, remote viewing subjects were chosen at random and even did demonstrations for visiting government officials.

This eventually evolved into using the doubting officials themselves as research subjects to show first-hand that remote viewing was indeed legitimate. These early visitors performed remote viewing amazingly well.

They and others that followed never failed to do at least one remote viewing demonstration that was successful both from a scientific and a personal point of view.

By 1974 research teams elsewhere were beginning to study remote viewing. RV success notwithstanding, research funds remained an ongoing problem.

As luck would have it, the team got word of the unusual, some would say psychic, beginnings of Richard Bach's then wildly popular book Jonathan Livingston Seagull, and Bach was called on a hunch that he would be interested in the RV project and would donate toward the research.

When Richard arrived a year or so later at SRI, he was invited to be a remote viewing subject.

As Richard tentatively began his narrative of the target site - never believing for one minute that what was in his mind was the actual location! - Russell began to gently prod and ask questions to get him to expand on what his RV faculties were picking up (remember Russell did not know the location either and was merely helping Richard to elucidate on what he saw).

When Russell recognized that Richard was using analyzing statements - proven by previous research at SRI to be misleading and incorrect - he asked him to merely describe the characteristics of what he saw.

This lead him back on the right path as later proven by visiting the target location and comparing Richard's transcript to it. Remote viewing was such a success for Richard that he did indeed back the research as a believing patron.

The next series of experiments were labeled the technology series and involved short-range viewing.

In these experiments, the researchers were looking for as much descriptive features as the subjects could provide about the closer range, intricate target equipment at SRI.

They used five subjects and conducted twelve experiments. Targets were used more than once to see if there were any common characteristics between subjects' descriptions.

During 15 minute sessions, remote viewers were asked to both describe and draw the target equipment while the target researcher used it. Seven pieces of equipment were used and chosen at random so that three were used twice and one was used three times as a target.

In general, the drawings were more accurate than the verbal transcripts and multiple viewing of a target proved to lend more detailed results than when a single person did the viewing. The results were 28:1 odds, which were considered to be significant.

As experimentation continued, it became apparent that the difference between the experienced and learner type of subject was one of reliability.

Those who were more seasoned in psychic research were less likely to show irregular results, but in general both types showed positive RV results.

Some of the results from learners were actually of the highest quality and right on target. This phenomenon led the SRI team to conclude that remote viewing is an innate and dispersed perceptual skill.

Furthermore, since these experiments were of the highest double-blind quality and no selective reporting occurred when publishing original and unedited data, conclusions about the inherent quality of remote viewing were considered valid and replicable.

Whether an experienced psychic or a learner, each remote viewer had his/her own way of experiencing and expressing remote viewing phenomena. In compiling data, the research team's consultant, Dr. Arthur Hastings, noted these differences.

They were much the same as the differences between individuals describing any observable scene: some notice minute detail, some focus on overall patterns and the way light and dark create contrasts, others "view" through the senses such as tactile and auditory experience of a place, while others are good at discerning the relationships among individuals.

Based on these experiments, the main differences between RV and normal viewing, besides the obvious, are that during remote viewing, things can be viewed that would be inaccessible to persons merely observing a scene with the normal, five senses; objects in motion are frequently not seen at all; and because of the non-analytical nature of the process, remote viewing appears to be - in general, but not exclusively - a right-brain activity.

A person learns remote viewing through practice much the same he learns to read and write, play the piano or roller skate. Without practice, mastery of any skill is most likely not going to occur. Below are six guidelines for developing mastery of one's remote viewing skills:

1. Do a personal inventory about your own beliefs concerning psychic phenomena, in general, and remote viewing, in particular.

Do you believe in paranormal phenomena, and more specifically do you allow yourself the ability to practice it, including remote viewing?

If the answer is no, ferret out the reason(s) for this, and then suspend disbelief for the time being, trusting that you can practice remote viewing.

Keep in mind that the experimentation at SRI scientifically proved that remote viewing skills did occur in varying degrees in all subjects tested - both experienced psychics and beginners with no known psychic abilities. So expect success!

2. Now partner with a friend to practice your remote viewing skills. Once that person has chosen a target location and you have both decided on the time of day or night for the remote viewing to occur, you are ready to begin.

At the chosen time, the friend merely observes what she is seeing at the target location for 15 minutes and you record what you perceive remotely about the same location for 15 minutes.

It is not necessary for the person at the target location to attempt to send you information telepathically.

3. Just prior to the agreed upon remote viewing time, it is best for you to retire to a quiet room, where there is minimal sensory stimulation, and simply relax your mind for a minute or so - no fancy rituals, just quiet and relaxation.

4. Next, at the prescribed time, either to yourself or to another friend who, like you, doesn't know the target location, start describing the distinguishing features of the remote scene as you observe them.

The friend with you can ask questions about what you are remotely viewing to help you flesh out the scene - colors, contours, sounds, etc.

Do not put names on or attribute functions to what you are viewing, but rather keep your descriptions to simple observations and feelings for greater success in the beginning.

5. Whether or not you consider yourself to be an artist, sketching the different features of the target scene as quickly as they come into your mind often catches nuances that are either missed or mistakenly described verbally.

6. It is best for you to observe the targeted location in person as soon after the remote viewing as possible, while the images are still prominent in your mind.

This quick evaluation of your descriptive hits and misses will help you to be more accurate in subsequent remote viewing trials.

The next paranormal research that was conducted had to do with remote viewing targets that had not yet been chosen randomly.

These were spurred on by a couple of Russell's precognitive, or seeing into the future, dreams at the time.

Hella Hammid was invited back as the subject, based on her success as a "beginner" in previous remote viewing experiments.

As other causality experiments within the field of physics had shown, linear time - as moving in a past to present to future fashion - seemed to be an observable fact, but not necessarily a scientific law.

Fact or law notwithstanding, the precognitive, remote viewing experiments so challenged the existing time-continuum paradigm that existed outside of physics that the researchers were hesitant to publish their findings!

The precognitive, remote viewing experiments with Hella, followed the same research protocol as the previous experiments except for the fact that she was instructed to begin her 15-minute observation of the target area 20 minutes prior to it being chosen.

This meant that Hella gave her full description of the target location 35 minutes before the experimenter even arrived at the target!

Hella was anxious about the new experiment and wondered how she was going to see outbound experimenters in a place they hadn't yet chosen.

Russ helped her to relax by telling her that the researcher that was to choose the target location would have to choose at random a place that ultimately matched her description when they were compared later.

The burden would be his, not hers. Hella's fears put to rest, the experiments were wildly successful.

During each of these precognitive remote viewing experiments, the traveling experimenter began by driving continuously for 30 minutes.

Then, still driving, he used a Texas Instruments SR-51 random number generator to select a number from 0 to 9. The generated number was used to count down and select one of the ten envelops he held - each with different instructions for a targeted area in them.

After choosing the randomly chosen envelop, the experimenter headed - for the next 15 minutes - to the location, according to the directions contained within the envelop, and remained there, stationary for the first time, for another 15 minutes.

Since moving targets have not generally been observed during remote viewing, the experimenter always remained in motion until arriving at the target site to keep the subject from observing him at various locations along the way.

Meanwhile, the subject's remote viewing session (complete with tape recording and drawing) was completed five minutes prior to the target location selection process.

Hella limited her descriptions to what she observed, trying to not analyze data during her four precognitive RV experiments. Each of the four was judged to be a success. In one, she correctly described a landscaped area with a double-colonnaded wall that led to it.

In another she identified a black iron triangle that made a squeaking sound over and over. This was a black swing set that indeed did squeak!

The judging of each experiment was done by three scientists at SRI, not associated with the experiment other than to determine correctness of the unedited tapes and drawings describing the future locations.

The odds of the combined experiments averaged at better than 20:1.

In order to fully understand the skill of remote viewing, it is necessary to understand the functions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

Since the beginning of recorded history, human beings have been seeking to discover the true nature of mind and how it operates.

Over time, branches of science developed to help in this quest. Neurophysiology, or the area of science that is concerned primarily with the study of the brain, is one such development.

Neurophysiologists in the nineteenth century observed that the brain is split into two halves. These halves are known today as the left and right hemispheres.

During the early years of neurological investigation, it was noted when studying a group of right-handed individuals whose left side of the brain was damaged, that the ability to communicate through speech and rational thought processes was impeded.

This was not observed when there was damage to the right side of the brain; thus, it was thought that the right hemisphere was of little importance.

It was only during the 1960's and '70's that right brain research caught up with that of the left, and the importance of both hemispheres to whole brain functioning was just beginning to be understood.

We now know that the left hemisphere is the center of language and analysis and that the right hemisphere is the center of intuition and recognition of patterns in the world at large.

The left relates to logic and linear reasoning. The right relates to whole systems such as direct insight, or the intuiting of solutions that bypasses step by step reasoning. The left proceeds sequentially over time.

The right covers vast ground in space. The left stores memory in form of language. The right stores memory as images. Because of this, art is associated with right brain functioning.

According to ancient Eastern philosophy, the cosmos functions in much the same way as the different hemispheres of the brain, but instead of left and right, these two modes of being are known as the Yang (logic, linear, goal-oriented) and Yin (Intuition, holistic, passive).

The West has traditionally revered the Yang mode of being and the East, Yin. Both are needed for balance, as are the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

While both hemispheres of the brain are now understood to be important to the full functioning of consciousness, due to the reverence of the Scientific Method in the West (e.g., logic and sequential reasoning), the right is still more obscure.

Given the above right/left brain information, it would appear that remote viewing is more closely tied to right brain functioning.

Also, one might build the case for ESP being more of a right brain activity, as it involves one's intuition reaching out in space rather than deducing something sequentially over time.

Therefore, one can see that typical PSI tests that are sequential in nature, such as the Card Draw, trick the brain into thinking with the left hemisphere when ESP is better suited to Intuition.

This is known as forced-choice, as opposed to free-response testing. The ideal remote viewing subject should be able to access both sides of the brain to a certain extent - relative to the tests being performed.

The important thing in most successful remote viewing trials is not to test one's ESP per se, but to allow the subject to express his innate RV skills during varied, free-response, and non-repetitive (i.e., boring) experimentation.

Prior to the SRI remote viewing experiments, during a conference on psychic healing in 1972, Russell discovered the psychic Uri Geller, then famous for his ability to psychically bend and move metal objects.

Experiments were devised at SRI to test this strange ability. The thick, metal objects to be bent were enclosed in a bell jar to avoid physical contact.

One month later, Uri was at the institute to begin testing after driving a speeding car around Palo Alto while blindfolded as a testimonial of his abilities for the research team that was to work with him in the coming days!

Immediately, he took the experiments out of the team's control and began manipulating objects, adding new ones and the like.

True, objects appeared to bend by mental means alone. But was it magic, illusion or experimentation?

No one knew. Uri was a take-charge, albeit likeable, kind of guy, and experimentation took on a circus like quality.

Still, he was 100% correct at telepathically guessing what object was brought in by the researchers' cameraman each day - when he chose to do so, and would decline to guess 20% if the time.

No tests with the elusive Uri were conducted under strict, experimental conditions, so all were considered inconclusive at best until the team had the bright idea to put him in an isolation chamber at SRI.

He was given only pencil and paper to remotely record drawings that were made by researchers in another building on the grounds. No one outside of the researcher doing the drawing was permitted in the target area.

Silence was maintained in both the target area and Uri's isolated chamber. An experimenter watched the door to the chamber at all times during the experiment.

A picture was then chosen by sticking a card at random in a college dictionary, and the first item that could be drawn from column one on the right-hand page was chosen by two members of the research team.

These RV experiments were successful at a statistical rate of 1,000,000:1!

While fascinating, experiments like the one with Uri Geller were not new. In 1930, a little known book by the author Upton Sinclair was published. It was entitled Mental Radio.

In it are over one hundred pictures of remote viewing experiments that were performed by Sinclair and others with his psychic wife, Mary.

Mary explains many of the ways she remotely perceived the drawings that coincide with the SRI findings, such as being unsure of the function of a particular item, while being able to drawn the pattern.

Interestingly, Albert Einstein was an observer in some of the experiments and wrote a preface to the book. The book has gone relatively unnoticed to this day, mainly because it does not fit in nicely with the current scientific paradigm of the physical universe.

Why are there still those that are opposed to the kind of legitimate, paranormal investigation, conducted within strict, scientific protocol, as performed at SRI? Particularly, when a large percentage of the population at large believes in paranormal phenomena?

For instance, 67% of the 1500 readers - many in fields related to science and technology - responding to a survey in a 1973 issue of New Science magazine, indicated a personal belief or, at the very least, the possibility that ESP is a viable human skill. 88% thought that ESP was worthy of scientific investigation.

So, why have there been so many roadblocks to such investigation?

One of the reasons, according to one vociferous critic of ESP research of the day, C.E.M. Hansel, was that experiments could not be protected against fraud 100% of the time.

True, but that could also be applied most other scientific investigation, as well.

The deeper reason was his belief, and the belief of those like him, that psychic phenomena simply do not exist.

Also, no scientific speculation had been offered to challenge such thinking or to calculate new outcomes based on previous research.

Although positive and controlled, paranormal experimentation had been ongoing for over 100 years by the time the current experiments were conducted; it would seem that it was ahead of the overall, scientific community's support of it.

The good news is that many physicists are now supporting paranormal research, based on quantum theory and on-going PSI experimentation.

Patterns are emerging that not only support further research, but theorems to support and predict outcomes. Two such hypotheses are:

  •  Kogan of the USSR and Persinger of Canada have formulated the theory that RV information is transmitted by extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves due, in part, to the extreme distances it can be conducted and the fact that shielding doesn't affect outcomes

  •  Bell's Theorem of the interconnectedness of all things - that within the Holoarchy of the cosmos, things distant from one another are not totally self-governing and do affect one another

Since there is a gap between the creation of new ideas on the cutting edge and a culture's acceptance of them, the opposition to psychical research is not yet dead, but is weakening on most fronts.

Be that as it may Russell and Hal had their share of problems in dealing with the opponents to the RV experiments described above.

One opponent and reporter for New Science, Joe Hanlon, came ostensibly to observe only the Geller research (SRI was not ready to publish its findings at that time), and then distorted it in an unofficial article printed in a popular, British scientific periodical of the day, New Science.

Russell and Hal replied in an angry editorial, stating that Hanlon had deliberately distorted the facts.

Many such stories of deception and bending of the truth surrounding paranormal experimentation began to appear as editorials from other scientists.

Brandon O'Regan, Research Director for the Institute of Noetic Sciences, went so far as to point out multiple errors in the article, and although his letter was never published, the Hanlon article did cause the magazine much embarrassment in the long run.

Another extremist in the opposition camp, was Martin Gardner. Gardner, an author, as well as on the staff of Scientific American, actually harassed SRI researchers with several letters denigrating Hall and Russ' research.

He ended this tirade with a final letter to the President of SRI, urging him to rethink his priorities and give up paranormal research at the institute.

Mr. Gardner was obviously bent on blocking ESP research, even though he himself called such unfounded opposition in his own book, In the Name of Science, "…irrational prejudice on the part of American psychologists…against even the possibility of extrasensory mental power."

He went on to further note that this irrational prejudice was one that he himself shared! What was disconcerting is that anyone who cared could write a negative review on the research being conducted at SRI without actually giving a scientific review of the actual facts.

It did appear that many members of the opposition were projecting their own propensity to replace scientific data with emotion-based belief systems onto the SRI research team!

Unfortunately, every time this happens in a public arena such as the magazines in which erroneous reports are published, more barriers are erected against the recognition of innate skills that when understood and used properly, can be part of an individual's self actualization process.

Far from being insignificant, the sharing of personal stories of ESP is important in moving the current belief system from that of skepticism to that of common belief.

It has been proven in the SRI laboratory that believing in one's own ability to remotely view target locations is an important factor in exhibiting the skill.

From there one can launch into other areas of mind projection, including actual interaction with remote physical systems, and the more lucid out of body experiences (OOBE) in which the person being visited feels the presence of the astral visitor.

In one such personal vignette, recounted in the late nineteenth century, a traveler on a ship going from Liverpool to New York was visited in his cabin by his wife - 1000 miles away in America - during a "dream" in which she kissed him. He was amazed to find that the person in the berth above him saw this scene also.

Yet, the witness to this scene was fully awake! The wife's question to her husband upon their reunion a week later was, "Did you receive a visit from me a week ago Tuesday?" She then proceeded to describe both the stateroom and the person in the upper berth who had stared at her - both correct!

Even though the above story is subjective, there has been research that has definitively proven that the presence of the astral traveler can be felt by other people as well as by animals. In one such experiment, a cat's activity levels were measured during the astral presence and absence of its owner.

The odds were significant at 100:1 that each time the owner remotely visited his pet, the pet's activity levels would significantly decrease.

As these types of remote visitations continue to be recounted without fear, we begin to notice the abundance of such stories in both literature and everyday life.

While the experiences cannot be delivered as hard, scientific data, they are plentiful, and have been collected as anecdotal stories of the paranormal at SRI.

Furthermore, they have been related by intelligent, coherent, and otherwise average people, leading to the belief that these experiences are much more frequent than otherwise thought.

The need for survival during life-threatening situations most often triggers spontaneous incidences of the paranormal. This is usually accompanied by increased strength and courage.

A government scientist visiting SRI told a story along this line that had happened while his son was a helicopter mechanic in Vietnam during the war.

The night his son was shot down behind enemy lines, the man's wife sat up in bed in terror, knowing exactly what had happened. The scientist calmed his wife by reminding her that their son was a mechanic and never flew missions.

The matter seemed to be settled. But when the son returned, it turned out that he had been invited on a mission by his friends, and that they had indeed been shot down behind enemy lines just as his mother had seen.

Fortunately, they were able to walk back to safety. Since it was against regulations for him to be on the helicopter that night, those involved never told anyone the story!

Russ tells the humorous story of the family cat that began wetting on the rug instead of outdoors as was her custom. Nothing the family tried worked. Eventually, she was one day from being sent to the Humane Society.

Russ' wife, Joan, looked at the cat on the fateful Humane Society morning and wished with all her heart that she could tell the cat what she needed to do to stay with the family, but knew that this was impossible.

But later in the morning, the jubilant Targ children found their cat miraculously urinating in the toilet, and she never wet in the house again!

ESP can be useful in a variety of ways. Some use it in the conducting of business in the form of a hunch or actual precognition. Medical diagnosis is a perfect place for paranormal intuition.

In her book, Breakthrough to Creativity, Dr. Shafica Karagulla gives many examples of the intuitive skills similar to that which the psychic Edgar Cayce employed in his medical readings.

Dr. Karagulla conducts ESP research in California, and has dubbed those with expanded psychic abilities as "supersane." The exploration of outer space, and even communication with extraterrestrials might prove to be another remote viewing arena of the future.

Unofficial tests, conducted at SRI with Ingo Swann and the psychic Harold Sherman, in which both remotely viewed Jupiter prior to Pioneer 10's flight, have provided promising - if not scientific (at present the target locations can not be visited for verification) - data.

There is nothing new about paranormal abilities. They appear to have been with us since the beginning of time. In the ancient past, these qualities were revered and respected.

Later, hierarchical religious structures began to show hostility to the expression of such individualistic power. Eventually mechanistic fashioning of the universe became the primary paradigm in the West.

At that point, paranormal abilities no longer held a place of honor, and they became downright threatening to the new world view.

The good news today is that religion and science have developed over time and each has come closer to including both the seen and unseen forces at work in the universe.

Perhaps once again the exploration and use of our paranormal abilities might be used to aid in the advancement of the human race - as well as other species - on earth and beyond.

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