Current Update as of September 10, 2006
Inspired by The Edgar Cayce Institute for Intuitive Studies
Edited by HENRY REED, Ph.D.
(Paraview Pocket Books)
Book Summary by Denise L. Dahl
Chapter 1 In the Beginning
of the most amazing scientific discoveries in the twentieth century
that defied what was previously known about classical physics was
the concept of entanglement. Entanglement occurs when
one particle splits into two or two particles interact.
word entanglement was coined by one of the founders
of quantum theory Erwin Schrodinger. It refers to the connections
between separated particles that remain connected regardless of
The idea of entanglement remained just a theoretical possibility for around 40 years until the late 1960s when a method to test this theory was developed. The first major replication was reported in the 1980s and was based on a theorem developed by Irish physicist John Bell and published in a paper in 1965. Bells Theorem states that, No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics.
Entanglement is no longer just a theoretical concept. It has been demonstrated over and over in physics laboratories for over 30 years and articles reporting new developments and applications now appear regularly in scientific journals. Some physicists now speculate that deeply entangled states may be meaningfully related to human experiences and if that is so, it may also have a relationship to psi.
Bioentanglement has to do with quantum connections with and among living systems. In fact, entanglement may extend to everything in the universe. Traditional physicists have speculated that empty space may be filled with entangled particles. Because all energy and matter emerged from the Big Bang, everything is already entangled and therefore we may be living in a deeply interconnected reality.
This suggests that entanglement may apply to living cells as well as inanimate particles and photons. If entanglement can occur in living cells, two brains could show correlated behavior at a distance. Experiments have already shown that EEGs of pairs of separated identical twins resulted in a corresponding response in the distant twins brain/mind.
this is possible, future experiments may produce evidence that the
brain is entangled with the outside world and mind fields are bioentangled
with the rest of the universe. This suggests that our minds are
physically entangled with the universe and that quantum theory may
be relevant to understanding psi.
Chapter 2 Naked Psi
The word psi was first used in 1942 by British psychologist Robert Thouless. He felt that it was a neutral term that could be used to refer to psychic experience without implying origins or mechanisms. Psi experiences include telepathy mind-to-mind interactions, clairvoyance perceiving objects at a distance, precognition perceiving the future, and psychokinesis mind-matter interactions. Psi experiences can also include healing at a distance, intuitive hunches, gut feelings, and the sense of being stared at.
Chapter 3 Who Believes?
paranormal phenomena, has been around for thousands of years. It
shows up in myths, fairy tales, legends, and anecdotal stories throughout
history and across all cultures. For example, Egyptians used dream
incubation to induce divinely inspired dreams.
Chapter 4 - Origins
However, in 1489 A.D., Pope Innocent VIII issued a papal bull against witches and issued a document entitled The Witch Hammer (Malleus Maleficarium). This document made witchcraft a crime punishable by death and started the infamous witch hunts throughout Europe. A hundred and twenty years later, King James I of England made witchcraft a civil crime by issuing the Witchcraft Act.
long after this, Sir Francis Bacon, an author, barrister, and later
Lord Chancellor of England, published A Naturall Historie In Ten
Centuries (Sylva Sylvarum). Bacon is credited with developing the
core concept of the scientific method - empirical reasoning.
hundreds of years would pass before Bacons observations would
be scientifically tested. In the meantime, ideas such as Bacons
as well as those of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, and
Newton contributed to the scientific revolution that was taking
hold in Europe.
the scientific revolution took off, the question of whether psi
was real or not overlapped scientific discoveries. In fact, some
psychic experiences led to scientific discoveries. For example,
Hans Berger had a telepathic experience with his sister that led
him to study how the mind works and eventually he developed a way
to measure brainwaves (EEG).
The beginning of the twentieth century was the quantum era and this era also brought about more interest in proving the existence of psi. In 1911, Thomas Welton Stanford donated 20,000 pounds to Stanford University to set up a Psychic Fund to investigate and advance the knowledge of psychic phenomena and the occult sciences and in 1929, Joseph Banks Rhine started a psi research program at Duke University sponsored by the chair of the psychology department, William McDougall, the founder of the British Journal of Psychology. Rhine continued parapsychological research until 1965.
the scientific revolution accelerated in Europe, a renowned metallurgist,
Emanuel Swedenborg, in Sweden displayed a remarkable understanding
of how a brain functions a good two hundred years before neuroscience
became a scientific discipline. Swedenborg was also a mystic and
of psychic experiences such as this have been reported for millennia
but in the eighteenth century an Austrian physician, Franz Anton
Mesmer advanced the concept of animal magnetism which
he thought was a biological force a magnetic fluid.
was an explosion of interest in hypnosis by the general public during
the late eighteenth century and this outraged some physicians. In
1784, the French Academy of Sciences, chaired by Benjamin Franklin,
and also the French Royal Society of Medicine began an investigation
of evaluating the status of mesmerism and its usefulness in treating
years later mesmerism was still popular in Europe and another investigation
was initiated by the French Royal Society of Medicine. This investigation
was favorable toward the healing effects of mesmerism and also the
psi phenomena reported by Puysegur.
Chapter 5 Putting Psi to the Test
Science has come a long way since this first official investigation of the phenomena of psi. The scientific ideal is to shape our beliefs by making observations and measurements about our experiences through controlled experiments and this ideal has been applied to tests for evidence of psi.
There are two basic categories for psi laboratory experiments:
that measure whether information can be perceived beyond the range
of the ordinary senses seem to involve information coming into the
mind from the environment. These types of experiences usually are
labeled as clairvoyance, telepathy, or precognition.
that monitor the effects of mental influence at a distance seem
to involve some kind of influence or information flowing out of
the mind to the environment. These types of experiences are given
various names such as mind-matter interactions, telekinesis, and
psychokinesis (PK). In a test for PK, there is a subject and a target.
There are many variations of both of these tests and thousands of experiments have been conducted over the last century based on these test designs. Here are a few examples of experiments involving telepathy and clairvoyance.
Mental Influence. In 1923, H.I.F.W. Brogans and his colleagues
in the Department of Psychology at the University of Groningen,
The Netherlands performed an experiment to investigate the claims
of a 23-year old physics student named Van Dam, who said that he
had telepathic abilities.
agent (the assistant experimenter), knew the target and was to try
and mentally influence the movement of Van Dams arm and guide
him to select the correct target. In some trials the agent was in
the same room as Van Dam and during others he was watching from
a soundproof window in the room above Van Dam.
This study is still important because it reported strong results under well-controlled conditions and it triggered an interest in using physiological measurement for detecting unconscious psi.
Experiments. The ESP card (Zener cards) test is another psi
experiment that has withstood the test of time. This test was introduced
by J. B. Rhine of the Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University.
There are twenty-five ESP cards imprinted with one of five symbols,
a star, a triangle, a circle, square, or wavy lines. There are five
cards imprinted with each symbol.
people think Rhines results with the ESP cards were due to
faulty methods, fraud, or chance but an analysis of the results
showed extremely strong evidence for the existence of psi even when
the trials were conducted under high security conditions.
Philosopher Fiona Steinkamp analyzed the Rhine-era ESP card test in detail and found that as controls improved to prevent sensory cues, recording errors, and investigator fraud, the results of the studies declined slightly but even with this, the highly controlled studies had odds against chance of 375 trillion to 1.
Experiments. Picture-drawing experiments have been a popular
way to test for evidence of clairvoyance. In a picture-drawing psi
experiment, one person selects or imagines an object and sketches
it and then concentrates on the picture and tries to telepathically
send the image to a distant partner.
example of this type of experiment was reported in a book written
by Upton Sinclair, a respected American activist and author. The
book was entitled Mental Radio, and was written in collaboration
with his wife Mary Craig Sinclair who was the subject of the book
as she demonstrated skills that convinced her husband and many others
that telepathy exists.
more recent example of clairvoyance is the results of the remote
viewing experiments performed at Princeton Universitys Engineering
Anomalies Research (PEAR) Laboratory. Remote viewing is the modern-day
term for clairvoyance that was coined by physicists Harold Puthoff
and Russell Targ at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International
in the early 1970s.
viewing has been replicated under rigorously controlled conditions
many times. In 2003, former Princeton University Dean of Engineering
Robert Jahn and psychologist Brenda Dunne summarized 25 years of
remote viewing (a.k.a. remote perception) research.
Chapter 6 Conscious Psi
of the experiments reported by individuals and research laboratories
like the ones mentioned above have produced strikingly successful
results. But many scientists are skeptical and critical of these
results. There is often suspicion that the design of the test was
flawed, the researchers made some kind of mistake or even that fraud
was somehow involved.
The Holy Grail for psi researchers is to find an easily repeatable experiment. A test where personal judgment or evaluation is not required and that everyone can immediately see that the results are self-evident. This quest has to date eluded researchers and led others to believe that claims of psi cannot be proved by using scientific methods.
Proving psi in a controlled laboratory setting is not easy because it involves human performance which is not easily predictable. Psi experiments are usually conducted with average people who do not claim to have any special talents and the results usually vary greatly. All experiments have some measurement errors - especially those involving human behavior.
One way to demonstrate that the effects of psi are independently repeatable under laboratory conditions is to analyze a collection of all of the previous experiments using a method called meta-analysis. In the following pages, we apply meta-analysis to thousands of experiments conducted over the last century to test various types of psi.
in Dreams. Cross cultural surveys show that about half of all
spontaneous psi experiences occur in dreams and in many of them
the dreamer received information about an accident or death. Because
of the frequency of these reports, researchers became interested
in studying whether similar psi experiences could be replicated
in a controlled laboratory setting.
The receiver slept in a soundproof, electromagnetically shielded room to ensure that the participants werent responding to any ordinary signals. The experimenter attached electrodes to the receivers head to monitor brainwaves and eye movements which were monitored throughout the night by a technician in a room next to the lab who notified the experimenter when rapid eye movement (REM), an indication that the receiver was dreaming, was observed.
sender in the experiment received a sealed envelope containing a
picture that was randomly selected from a pool of 8 to 12 pictures.
After receiving it, the sender went to a remote site where he or
she would open the envelope.
dreamers impressions on the audio transcript from each dream
session were evaluated by one or more independent judges and compared
to the 8 to 12 pictures in the pool.
2003, British psychologists Simon Sherwood and Chris Roe from the
University College Northampton, England reviewed all 379 of the
Maimonides dream psi sessions conducted over the seven year period
plus all of the at-home dream studies done since that time and found
that there were 47 experiments that produced a total of 1,270 trials.
and the Ganzfeld. Ganzfeld is a German word meaning whole
field. In a ganzfeld psi experiment, the experimenter places
halved Ping-Pong balls over the eyes of the participant as they
relax in a comfortable reclining chair. The participant also wears
headphones that play pink noise. The experimenter shines a red light
on the participants face and asks the individual to keep their eyes
open so they can see the soft red glow of the light at all times.
Over the years, the ganzfeld tests have generated so much debate and scrutiny among scientists that the modern ganzfeld experiment is as close to the perfect psi experiment that anyone knows how to conduct. In 1994, psychologists Daryl Bem from Cornell University and Charles Honorton from the University of Edinburgh published a meta-analysis of ganzfeld studies that provided strong evidence for a genuine psi effect with overall odds against chance of 48 billion to 1.
The Sense of Being Stared At. Telepathy and clairvoyance are two of the innumerable ways that psi can manifest. Another way is the sense of being stared at. In olden days this was associated with the evil eye which was a belief that if you paid too much attention to an object or an individual it would spark desire that in turn would lead to envy, jealousy, and in general, evil.
have investigated this phenomenon for almost a century. Typically,
in this study one person stares at another person. They sit a few
yards from each other with the receivers back turned to the
sender. The sender flips a coin to determine if he should stare
or not stare at the back of the receivers head during the
An analysis of 60 published studies of this phenomenon involving 33,357 trials produced an overall success rate of 54.5% with odds against chance at a staggering 202 octodecillion (2 x 10 to the 59th power) to 1.
studies discussed so far involved experimental designs with a hit
or miss approach because that kind of a test makes it easier to
ask the question does psi exist? These studies show
that there are far more hits than can be expected by chance.
Chapter 7 - Unconscious Psi
The next class of studies looks at experiments that study unconscious psi effects in the human body. These are studies that involve three aspects of the nervous system, the part that regulates the automatic functions of the body like the heart beat and sweating (the autonomic nervous system(ANS)), the part involved in conscious movements and thought (the central nervous system (CNS)), and the part involved in digestion and elimination (the enteric nervous system (ENS)).
in the ANS. The first class of studies in this area is called
a direct mental interaction with living systems or DMILS study.
In this type of test a receiver relaxes in a solid steel, double-walled
chamber that shields against electromagnetic signals and acoustic
noise to ensure that no ordinary forces or signals can reach the
receiver after the door is closed.
In a different location the sender is also in a soundproofed room and is asked to sit in front of a video monitor and follow the instructions that come on the screen. A coin toss determines if the sender sends messages to the receiver to calm her or sends messages that will activate her.
the end of the session, the investigator takes the 30-minute record
of the receivers skin conductance data and separates it into
those periods when the sender sent calming thoughts towards the
receiver and those periods when the sender sent thoughts to activate
variation of the DMILS experiment is known as a study in remote
staring. This is a variation on the sense-of-being-stared-at
experiment with rigorous controls. In this experiment the sender
sees the receiver on a live video image on a closed-circuit TV monitor.
In 2004, psychologist Stefan Schmidt and his colleagues from the University of Freiburg Hospital, Germany published a meta-analysis of these two classes of studies. The analysis included forty DMILS studies reporting 1,055 individual sessions conducted between 1977 and 2000. The results were significant with odds against chance of 1,000 to 1.
Schmidts team found 15 experiments describing 379 remote-staring studies conducted between 1989 and 1998. The meta-analysis found a significant effect with odds against chance of 100 to 1 with no selective reporting, and no relationship between study quality and the outcome.
Psi in the CNS. Schmidts meta-analysis found that thinking about another person at a distance influences their autonomic nervous system and researchers were interested in finding out if these types of experiments would also cause changes in the brain.
test involves two people being hooked up to an electroencephalograph.
They are at distant locations and the test involves flashing a light
to cause one of the brains to jump electrically in a predictable
way and then checking to see if the other, distant brain also reacts
at the same time.
This test revealed a significant correlation between the two brains and also showed the precise location in the brain associated with this connection. In 2004, three independent replications of this test were successful.
Experiments indicate that psi can be detected unconsciously in both the autonomic and the central nervous system.
Chapter 8 - Gut Feelings.
hunches knowing without knowing how you know and gut
feelings are due to factors such as forgotten expertise, subliminal
cues, and unconscious inferences.
this study, a sender sat in front of two video monitors with headphones.
The receivers live video image was displayed for two minutes
on the video monitor at random times while the other monitor showed
a sequence of emotional or neutral pictures as emotionally appropriate
music played over the headphones.
such as smiling babies, kittens, and appetizing food and upbeat
songs like the Beatles, Twist and Shout were used to
evoke positive emotions and pictures.
sender was instructed to periodically gaze at the image of the receiver
and mentally send the emotions evoked by the slide show and music.
results of running 26 couples through this experiment resulted in
EGG responses that were significantly larger when the sender was
experiencing either positive or sad emotions then when the sender
was experiencing neutral emotions.
Chapter 9 - Mind-Matter Interaction
In the experiments discussed up until this point, tests were performed to consider the question of whether information can flow from the environment into the mind. These next experiments reverse that flow and test for whether information flowing from the mind can affect the environment, i.e., mind-matter interactions.
research seems to support the idea that psi is a type of distant
influence but another explanation is that the person acting as the
receiver in the psi experiments could perceive the intentions or
actions of the person acting as the sender.
and Dice. Since 1935 there have been 148 published reports of
dice-tossing experiments done by 52 investigators to test for psychokinesis
(PK) which is the effect of mind over matter.
1989, psychologist Diane Ferrari and the author performed a meta-analysis
in order to assess the combined PK effects in dice experiments published
in English-language journals from the 1930s to 1989.
analysis showed that the odds that the dice studies were due to
chance alone were 10 to the 96th power to 1. Further analysis to
see if there was a selective reporting problem and the odds against
chance was still a staggering 10 to the 76th power to 1.
Psi and Random Number Generators. A random number generator (RNG) is an electronic device that generates sequences of random bits, 0s and 1s. It can be thought of as a coin-flipping machine that generates thousands of completely random coin-flips per second. RNG experiments are another type of experiment for testing for mind-matter interaction.
1997, engineer Robert Jahn and his colleagues at the PEAR Lab, published
a review of 12 years of experiments involving over 100 volunteers
who attempted to mentally influence random number generators (RNGs).
Tossing the dice and RNG experiments seem to indicate that the mind can influence matter but researchers are cautious because there may be another explanation for the PK effect.
Chapter 10 - Presentiment
is a sense of foreboding, a vague feeling of danger; an intuitive
hunch that something is not right is about to take place. Presentiment
seems to be an experience that perceives the future. Research in
this area involved forced-choice precognition experiments.
1989, Diane Ferrari and Charles Honorton published a meta-analysis
test that included all of the precognition experiments conducted
between 1935 and 1987. They found 309 studies reported in 113 articles
that were contributed by 62 different investigators.
The forced-choice tests generated interesting results but most guessing tests tend to produce very small effects that decline over time because the people involved in the testing have a tendency to get bored after awhile. Because of this, researchers have started to explore unconscious forms of precognition.
as Presentiment. The idea of presentiment assumes that we are
always unconsciously scanning our future and preparing to respond
to it. The presentiment experiments suggest that we can unconsciously
perceive our future.
research to date suggests that we have the capacity to perceive
distant information and to influence distant events across space
and time. It also challenges the assumption that we are isolated
creatures, separated in space and time.
Chapter 11 Gaias Dreams
the results of experimental psi research, it seems safe to conclude
that psi is real and researchers are now more interested in conducting
experiments to prove how psi works. One theory is that in the same
way that networks of neurons combine to form our brains, maybe psi
forms an interconnective web of brain/minds that result in a collective
This is how this type of experiment works using an RNG. RNGs generate pure randomness known as entropy and fluctuations in entropy can be detected using simple statistical procedures. If entropy decreases when a RNG is placed near groups engaged in high focused attention such as during a group meditation or an engaging spiritual ritual, it can be inferred that when one side of the mind-matter relationship changes by becoming highly ordered, the other side of the equation should show unusual forms of order as well.
More than a hundred field-consciousness experiments have been reported by groups in the United States, Europe, and Japan between the mid-1990s and 2005. Some of these experiments were conducted at Native American rituals, popular festivals in Japan, theatrical performances, scientific conferences, psychotherapy sessions, sports competitions, and during live television broadcasts. The studies strongly suggest that coherent group activity is associated with unusual moments of order in RNG outputs.
Overall, the field consciousness experiments suggest that the small mind-matter interaction effects observed in the laboratory also appear in the uncontrolled context of everyday life.
Chapter 12 - A New Reality
The existence of a few basic psi effects is sufficiently well established to convince most scientists that something interesting is going on. This doesnt mean that everything paranormal is true. The next step is to understand psi experience and its possible that quantum physics may offer some clues.
Classical physics made five basic assumptions about the fabric of reality: reality, locality, causality, continuity, and determinism. It was taken for granted that these assumptions took place in time and space and that the mathematical descriptions of physical processes corresponded to the actual behavior of objective events.
The assumption of reality refers to the idea that the physical world is objectively real. That it exists independently regardless of whether anyone is observing it. Locality refers to the idea that the only way that objects can be influenced is through direct contact. Unmediated action at a distance is prohibited.
Causality assumes that time moves in one direction and that cause and effect sequences are fixed. Continuity assumes that there are no discontinuous jumps in nature or that the fabric of space and time is smooth. Determinism means that things progress in an orderly, predictable way.
Classical physics are still used today to explain large segments of the observable world and it still works for most objects at the human scale.
of the unsolved mysteries of quantum theory have to do with the
concepts of superposition, complementarity, uncertainty, the measurement
problem, and entanglement.
Common sense tells us that ordinary objects are separate but the fact that quantum objects can become entangled means that this is incorrect. In unobserved states, quantum objects are connected instantaneously through space and time. We now know that time is an illusion and that when events seem to happen depends on the perspective of the observer.
new reality has also had to abandon the assumption of continuity
because the fabric of quantum reality is discontinuous and space
and time are neither smooth nor contiguous.
Dissolution of the classical assumptions has also challenged the mechanistic approach to how science understands the world. This approach assumes that there are separate objects that interact in determined, causal ways. However, because quantum reality is holistic, studying its individual pieces will yield an incomplete picture.
There are only a few physicists today that believe that quantum theory provides an accurate description of the observable world. To date, there is not even widespread agreement over the interpretation of quantum theory. Quantum theory is preposterously precise yet there is not widespread agreement as to what it means. Here are some of the theories proposed to explain quantum theory.
Interpretation. Niels Bohr of the Institute for Theoretical
Physics at the University of Copenhagen advanced one of the leading
interpretations of quantum theory. Known as the Copenhagen interpretation,
this theory says that ultimately quantum theory tells us what we
can know about reality rather than about reality itself.
Worlds Theory. The many worlds interpretation was proposed by
physicist Hugh Everett. This theory suggests that when a quantum
measurement is performed, every possible outcome actually manifests.
Quantum Logic. The quantum logic interpretation proposes that we dont understand the implications of quantum theory because previous assumptions about logic no longer hold when dealing with complementary systems. Common sense says that a photon is either a wave or a particle but not both and a number is either 0 or 1 but not both at the same time. However, experiments show that this is not so.
Consciousness Creates Reality. Another interpretation proposes that the act of observation literally creates physical reality. In its strong form, this interpretation asserts that consciousness is the fundamental ground state, more primary than matter or energy. This position provides a special role for observation by becoming the active agent that collapses quantum possibilities into actualities.
The decoherence interpretation rests upon the Copenhagen interpretation
but delves deeper into the question of what happens at the boundary
between the observed and unobserved.
Einstein favored the neorealism interpretation which proposes that
reality consists of objects familiar to classical physics, and that
the strangeness of quantum theory can be accounted for by our ignorance
of hidden variables.
For decades, the argument over possible hidden variables that might reestablish ordinary reality revolved primarily around ones philosophical preferences. But in 1964, Irish physicist John Bell mathematically proved that no local hidden variables theory could be compatible with quantum theory. Bells theorem, has subsequently been described as the most profound discovery in science.
In 1964 the debate swung strongly in favor of quantum theory through Bells theorem, and that led to a series of increasingly persuasive experimental tests starting in 1972.
In 1909, William James wrote in an article stating that psi was remarkably baffling but he was convinced of the existence of real supernormal knowledge. After decades of research and experiments, investigators are also convinced that psi exists but they are no closer to understanding how it works.
theory and a vast body of supporting experiments tell us that something
unaccounted for is connecting otherwise isolated objects. Psi experiences
and experiments also tell us this.
Experiments have demonstrated that the worldview implied by classical physics is wrong. Not just slightly incorrect but fundamentally wrong in ways that would support the reality of psi.
Chapter 13 - Theories of Psi
There are three main problems that stand in the way of developing a theory for psi.
All three problems are closely related to our concept of what physical reality is. Concepts about the relationships among matter, mind, and psi have evolved in the following four periods.
the Age of Magic, psi was taken for granted and then denied in the
Age of Industry and then allowed to exist again in the Modern/Classical
Age. Theories of psi paralleled the views of each era. In the Age
of Magic, theories of psi were based on occult lore concepts
such as astral and mental bodies, elemental and divine spirits,
and various forms of lifeforce were the prevailing ways
that people imagined psi to be mediated.
In the Modern/Classical Age, theories of psi followed advances in physics, thus ideas involving fields (as in mind fields) and signal passing became popular.
theory describes an observed effect and can range anywhere from
the explanatory precision of a mathematical equation to a metaphor
or a myth. Psi theories include this full range of possible descriptions.
Here are five possible theories of psi.
Theory 1 Observational Theory
The premise of observational theory is that the outcome of an event with a quantum mechanically uncertain outcome will be influenced by the act of observation by a motivated observer. A motivated observer is considered to be a person with either a conscious or unconscious desire for a particular outcome.
Many researchers have made contributions to this theory but the first was Evan Harris Walker in the early 1970s. He proposed that the essential connection between the observer and the observed random event could be represented by the hidden variables they have in common.
In 1975, Helmut Schmidt devised a mathematical model of psi using the premise that random event outcomes become biased by being observed by the subject during an experiment. Both Walker and Schmidts theories explain how the quantum mechanical process is influenced by an observer.
phenomena such as precognition and retroactive psychokinesis represent
what is called backward causation. These phenomena can
be understood in the context that random events that go unobserved
remain in a state of indefinite reality. In other words,
the outcome is in a kind of a suspended state until an observation
Theory 2 Model of Pragmatic Information
theory can make accurate predictions of any system (living or nonliving)
regardless of its size. Physicist and psychologist Walter von Lucadou
proposed this model and made the assumption that the structure of
any system (how it is constructed or its form) and the function
of the system (how it behaves) are complementary.
Theory 3 Weak-Quantum Theory
Harald Walach, physicists Harald Atmanspacher, and Hartmann Romer
have proposed that this theory can explain a psychotherapy phenomenon
called transference. Transference occurs when a patient
projects their problems on the therapist.
Theory 4 Bohms Implicate/Explicate Order
David Bohm and neuroscientist Karl Pribram working independently,
came up with the ideas of a holographic universe and a holographic
brain. Bohm has defined the world of manifest appearances as the
explicate order and the hidden (nonlocal) reality underlying
the manifest world as the implicate order, where everything
is enfolded or entangled with everything else.
Pribram independently proposed that a quantum holographic reality could be applied to the processes of the human brain. Bohm and Pribrams ideas were made popular in a book authored by Michael Talbot The Holographic Universe, where Talbot proposed that the two ideas could explain a vast range of paranormal and psychic experiences.
Theory 5 Stapp-von Neumann
Henry Stapp took Hungarian mathematician John van Neumanns
assumption that quantum theory is not telling us about Reality
but about the observers knowledge of reality, a step further
by saying that because quantum measurement includes the observer
and that observers knowledge, the mind must be entangled with
to science historian Robert Nadeau and physicist Menas Kafatos,
every particle in the universe has interacted with all of the other
particles in the universe from the big bang to the present.
Nadeau, Kafatos, Stapp, and others believe that quantum reality plays a role in understanding phenomena like human experience. They believe there is a quantum mind/body connection and that human experience is a part of quantum reality.
theory for understanding psi is proposed by the author. This theory
assumes that at a level deeper than the ordinary senses can grasp,
the brain/mind is in communication with the universe. We might picture
the mind/brain embedded in a large bowl of clear jello in which
every movement, event, and thought is experienced throughout the
One argument against this understanding of psi is that psi seems to involve an information transfer like a signal passing. However, joint tasks that require classical signals can take place without any information transfer. This suggests that perhaps psi doesnt require an information transfer but is correlated like entanglement which means that separated systems are correlated.
the assumption is made that the mind/brain behaves as a quantum
object and that it is sensitive to the dynamic state of the entire
universe and there are a vast number of events that we could potentially
cause us to react. We will ignore most of these events and regard
them as background noise.
example of the unconscious minds scanning ability and how
psi may work can be seen in an experience that has been reported
for thousands of years and that is when one person feels that someone
they love is in danger.
Chapter 14 - Next
people are already looking towards the possibility of psi application
in various technologies in the not too distant future. The author
believes that we may see psi at the core of exotic forms of communication
and prediction technologies. Theres already evidence that
psi effects can be amplified through the use of statistical error-correction
author believes that someday psi research will be taught in universities
with the same aplomb as todays elementary economics and biology.
It will no longer be considered controversial, but just another
facet of Nature one learns as part of a well-rounded education.
History shows that as the scientific frontiers continue to expand, the supernatural evolves into paranormal, and then into normal. During the transitional periods there is much gnashing of teeth. But with determination and courage, progress is relentless.
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