Making Psychology Complete and Essential for Understanding of the Human Mind,
Behavior and Intuitive Awareness
Presidential Address of the 16th Annual Conference of National Academy of
Psychology, Bombay, India, December 14-16, 2006
Rourkela Institute of Management Studies, Rourkela, India
I have taught psychology to undergraduate and postgraduate students of Patna
University, Bhagalpur University, and IIT, Kharagpur for more than four decades.
I have also taught some of the management courses to these students in IIT and
in Vinod Gupta School of Management (VGSOM). This teaching of management I am
still continuing in Rourkela Institute of Management Studies (RIMS), Rourkela
even after my retirement from IIT service.
I must say, I have always enjoyed
maximum in a classroom while teaching these subjects. I have also been listening
to my psychologist-colleagues and management experts in national and international
conferences on different subjects. From all these, I can say with confidence
that psychology has contributed a lot to me, to my colleagues in psychology
and management, and to many others and, as a subject, it has been successful
within its own defined area of study.
However, a few basic questions have been bothering me for quite some time.
If psychology has become today the science of behaviour and mental processes,
as defined by Myers (1995), do we understand fully what is behaviour? what is
mind? what is mental process? Is it possible to know about all these subject
matters through the objective or scientific methods we are using in psychology?
Is psychology really understanding all the social problems and solving them?
Is it really helping others and do people have respect for this subject?
These are some of the questions we need to answer honestly. Is it not a fact that
all questions related to mind and behaviour cannot be answered in psychology
because, for the most part, it has adopted the scientific methods which allow
psychologists to study only such questions which can be tested in a precise,
objective, and publicly verifiable fashion? Have not we been trained to formulate
hypotheses and collect data to test their validity either through controlled
laboratory experiments or through questionnaires?
Sometimes, we are allowed
to gather information through some other methods like observation, interviews,
clinical studies, and surveys. But what about such aspects of mind and behaviour
like faith, trust, confidence, consciousness, spirituality, wisdom, karma, etc.
which cannot be tested objectively? Should we simply drop them from the subject
matters of psychology as Watson did to make psychology a natural science? Or,
should we think of some other methods to study such subjects in psychology?
It is good that psychology is gaining consciousness today by including mental
processes in its definition. But it would be still better, if it also includes
another suitable method to study such subject matters. This will give us a chance
to understand all the aspects of human mind and behaviour and will encourage
us to listen to others on these subjects who have made significant contributions
in these areas. My life-long experience to this point says that this will also
make psychology complete and essential for understanding of the human mind,
behaviour, and intuitive awareness.
Indian thinkers and psychologists (e.g.,
Mehta, 2000; Daftuar, 2002; Rao, 2002; Rao, 2005; Rao & Marwaha, 2005; Sharma,
2005; Sharan, 2005a, 2005b) have been talking about these subjects on different
occasions and, I am sure, they can contribute a lot in this regard because many
of them have got intuitive minds. We should not forget that modern psychology
has the dual roots of philosophy and science and its scope has broadened considerably
in recent years to include many such topics which Watson and other early behaviourists
would not have tolerated.
Human Mind: Conscious, Subconscious or Unconscious?
The nature of human mind is difficult to understand because it is very subtle
as well as hidden. Therefore, it has been defined in different ways by different
authors or by the same author on different occasions. Freud originally presented
a topographical model of mind and defined it in terms of conscious, preconscious
and unconscious conscious as the part of the psyche that
includes material of which one is fully aware; preconscious as the
part of the psyche that includes material which is not at the moment within
ones awareness but which can readily be brought to the conscious mind;
and unconscious as the part of the psyche that includes material
not within ones awareness and which cannot readily be brought to the conscious
mind (Ewen, 1980).
But he put maximum emphasis on the unconscious mind. Today,
however, a debate is going on between the minds and many are telling
us to maintain a balance between these minds, as it is one. Bandler
and Grinder (1979) have rightly tried to settle the issue by saying that they
are different in just a way of describing events conscious
as whatever we are aware of at a moment, and unconscious as everything
else otherwise, as a whole, it is one. They are citing a very convincing
example in their support: Suppose we are driving along the highway returning
home; on approaching the neighbourhood, we start realizing that for the past
several minutes our mind has been elsewhere.
Daydreaming, thinking about things,
our mind has been on anything but paying attention to the road. We wonder how
we managed to watch out for cars, follow traffic signals, and make the right
turns when we were not there. Thus, there are a number of things
we are doing without paying proper attention to all at a time and the pendulum
of awareness swings between the minds without any difficulty.
Now, the next question is: By which name this one mind should be known? Those
who are working in the field of information processing say that the conscious
awareness is just the tip of the iceberg. It simply enables us to exert voluntary
control and to communicate our mental states to others (Kihlstrom, 1987). Beneath
the surface, actually, subconscious information processing occurs simultaneously
on many parallel tracks.
When we look at a flying bird, we are consciously aware
of the result of our cognitive processes but not of our sub-processing of the
birds colour, form, movement, distance and identity. Therefore, from the
functional viewpoint, it is the subconscious mind which takes care of all the
processes that are occurring out of conscious awareness. This one mind thus
should be known as the subconscious mind (Murphy, 2000).
Philosophers and some other thinkers, however, attach more importance to the
conscious part of the mind. They say that it is the conscious part of the mind
which does all the processing of information because it is logical, reasonable,
and can change its point of view at will. Since the subconscious mind is not
logical and reasonable, it cannot take any independent decision of its own,
and it has to simply support the conscious mind. This idea of conscious mind
has been fully supported by Vedanta (a philosophy and religion based on the
Vedas that teaches the non-duality of the individual soul and God). It throws
sufficient light not only on what mind is, and why it should be known as the
conscious mind, but also on how it is illuminated by the power of consciousness.
According to Vedanta, the mind is known as antahkarana (internal instrument)
which perceives through five sense organs eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and
skin - and acts through five organs of action the organ of speech, the
hands, the legs, the organ of procreation, and the organ of evacuation. Thus,
it recognizes different functions of the mind and thereby assumes that all these
functions are possible only through the conscious mind. The power of consciousness,
however, Vedanta says further, is not the built-in-characteristic of the mind.
This comes from some higher source known as Soul, Atman or Self. Since mind
is not the real perceiver or knower of the mental phenomenon, Vedanta differentiates
between the mind and the Self the mind as an object (the known) and the
Self as a subject (the knower).
Anything that falls into the category of the
known does not have consciousness as its very essence whereas the subject or
knower does. Thus, there is one ultimate observer or experiencer, and that is
the Self. This is the reason why today many are of the opinion that there are
three distinct factors of human personality the physical body, the mind,
and the soul. They are vitally connected and though they appear to be one single
entity, they are distinguishable. Thus, it can be safely concluded that one
should not get caught by the words conscious, subconscious
and unconscious because they are just to describe different functions
of the same mind. Each of these is accessible to us in some way because they
communicate with each other in their own way. This one mind, therefore, should
be best known as the conscious mind.
From Conscious Mind to Superconscious Mind
We have seen what wonderful arrangements we have within us of mind and soul.
Mind, which is like an instrument, is getting the power of consciousness from
soul. That means our mind is functioning like a mirror which can perceive properly
only when it is fully illuminated by our soul. Since soul, like sun, is throwing
lights constantly on the mirror, it is for the mind to absorb them properly.
If it is neat and clean, it will absorb better; otherwise, it will not be able
to do so. In this sense, Vedanta rightly says that it is possible for us to
make our conscious mind Superconscious which will perceive and judge
things in a better way making use of all the information available in the so
called subconscious and unconscious minds.
Thus, for the development of the
Superconscious Mind, we need to feed the conscious mind with rich food, nourish
it regularly, strengthen it, and enrich it. According to Vedanta, The
richest soil, the soil of the human mind, lies fallow. If it could be tilled
well it would yield golden crops, but since it lies fallow, it yields brambles
and thorny bushes and weeds (Ellis, 1994).
From perception viewpoint, Sharma (2005) has also identified three quantum
states of mind: the state of Ordinary Perception (OP), the state of Extra-Sensory
Perception (ESP), and the state of Extra-Ordinary Perception (EOP). Many of
us are working with the first state of mind, and therefore, most of the times
we are having ordinary perceptions including illusions and hallucinations.
But there are occasions we also work with the second state of mind and experience
some kind of extra-sensory perceptions like telepathy and precognition. At the
same time, there are some persons who sometimes work with the third state of
mind and have extra-ordinary perceptions. Scientists and creative persons perhaps
get something new only in this state of intuitive mind. Superconscious Mind
thus refers to this state of mind when we experience cosmic connectivity and
have good understanding, peace, wisdom and enlightenment.
The Universal Mind
The Superconscious Mind is also known as the Universal Mind. Many
years ago, Jung proposed a psychoanalytic theory based on what he called archetypes
of a universal unconscious. These archetypes are a set of universal patterns
from which all symbols evolve. They point to a region of the mind that exists
as a common link between all people, living and dead. Since Freud did
not agree with Jungs collective unconscious, the transpersonal mind remained
neglected all these years.
Recently, however, many have started attaching importance
to this transpersonal mind because it has many spiritual and moral possibilities
hidden within it. According to Ellis (1994), It holds possibilities which
are locked away from the conscious mind, for it has at its disposal all subliminal
psychic contents, all those things which have been forgotten or overlooked,
as well as the wisdom and experience of uncounted centuries which are laid down
in its archetypal organs
.The unconscious can serve man as a unique guide,
provided he can resist the lure of being misguided.
Superconscious Mind is thus the souls mind which is connected to all
others minds. Edgar Cayce has given a pictorial model of the link between
minds (Reed, 1989). It shows there is one mind and people share it (see Figure
1 and 2).
The Relations between Individual Conscious Minds and the One Mind
In Figure 1, which is a multipoint star, Cayce shows how the star itself represents
the entire mind. Each arm of the star represents a portion of the mind for a
different person. The very tip of each point represents the conscious mind of
Regions of the Mind
In Figure 2, we see how the unconscious mind is a continuous
connective layer of the inner parts of the minds arms. The star tips only
seem separate from one another. The arms of the stars are clearly like fingers
on the same hand. The arms represent our subconscious minds. All subconscious
minds are connected. The core of the mind is available to us all via the Superconscious
Mind. The relationship between the conscious, subconscious, and Superconscious
Mind is thus something like this (see Figure 3) as suggested by Koh (2004):
Connection between Minds
From the diagram, we can see that we are all connected at the superconscious
level, through our individual's subconscious mind. The conscious mind is not
connected directly to the Superconscious Mind. Koh maintains that:
- There is only one Superconscious Mind (the Universal Mind), to which all
of our minds are connected. It is like a mega computer that orchestrates the
activities in every little computer connected to it.
- It helps us to make good decisions, since it has infinite intelligence. It
has all the answers we want, including tomorrows share price!
- It is the source of all true invention. Great inventors like Thomas Edison
and Albert Einstein have mastered the technique of receiving great ideas from
the Superconscious Mind.
- It helps us achieve our goals. Once we truly understand the Superconscious
Mind Power, we will realize that success is not a function of luck.
Tapping the Superconscious Mind
We have seen that our Superconscious Mind can access every piece of information
stored in our conscious and subconscious minds. It can also access data and
ideas outside our own experience, because it actually lies outside our human
mind. That is why it is called a form of universal or infinite intelligence.
Hill (2004), perhaps the greatest researcher on success of the 20th century,
called this power the infinite intelligence.
After spending more
than 20 years interviewing 500 of the most successful men and women alive in
America at that time, he concluded that, without exception, their ability to
tap into this higher form of infinite intelligence was the primary reason for
their great success in life. We, therefore, need to learn about how to tap this
Superconscious Mind which is the source of all examples of pure creativity.
According to Tracy (2002), the critical factor in using our Superconscious Mind
is our attitude.
Our Superconscious Mind functions best with an attitude of
calm, confident expectations. When we adopt an attitude of faith and acceptance,
when we confidently accept and believe that everything that is happening to
us is moving us progressively toward the achievement of our goal, our Superconscious
Mind seems to come alive, like all the lights have been turned on in a room.
That is why successful people seem to have tremendous clarity concerning what
they want, along with tremendous calmness and confidence regarding their ability
to achieve it. This combination of attitudes will throw the power switch on
our superconscious abilities.
Because of such superconscious powers, anything
that we can hold in our mind on a continuing basis, we can have. We believe
in the divine statement that As you sow, so you reap; and this law
of consequences refers to mental states; to our thoughts. Based on this assumption,
Tracy (2002), one of the world's leading authorities on personal and business
success, has given a 10-step plan for plugging into our superconscious power
to get what we truly want in life. He asserts that make this plan a regular
habit and you will be astonished at the results. By doing so, you will
move from the positive thinking of the hopeful person to the positive
knowing of the totally successful person.
- Decide exactly what you want.
- Write your goal clearly in every detail.
- Write your goal in simple, present tense words on a three-by-five index
card and carry it with you to read and re-read throughout the day whenever
you get a chance.
- Make a list of everything you can think of that you can do that will move
you toward your goal.
- Organize the list by priority - what is more important and what is less
- Resolve to take action every day on one of the items on your list.
- Visualize your goal repeatedly.
- Get the feeling of pleasure and enjoyment that you would have if your goal
was realized at this moment.
- Confidently behave as if your Superconscious Mind were bringing your goal
- Release your goal completely to your Superconscious Mind.
Similar views have been expressed by many other Western thinkers like Stone
(2006), Murphy (2000), Reed and English (2002), etc. Indian thinkers, however,
differ in their approach. They teach about how to purify body and how to purify
mind to control the mind. And, for them (Budhananda, 2005; Vivekananda, 2005),
the entire secret of controlling the mind is: abhyasa (practice) and
.Practice and Dispassion must co-exist
if one is to come to a perfect control of the mind. ... Practice is possible
only by being a participant in the daily activities aimed at sustenance or betterment,
whether individual or collective. But Dispassion suggests a stepping out of
activities; it indicates a condition of being a witness to what is happening
Human Behaviour: Physical, Mental or Spiritual?
We have seen how American psychologists defined psychology as the science
of observable behaviour and, therefore, many of the studies in psychology
remained restricted to only overt activities for many, many years. But, today,
we are not agreeing with the behaviourists and are studying many subjective
aspects as well. Not only that, we also try to explain every human behaviour
in terms of mind involved in it. We assume that every human behaviour
is having minimum two aspects the physical and the mental
the physical related to body and the mental, related to mind.
Since we want to maintain a balance between mind and body in order to have an effective
behaviour, the behaviour becomes spiritual in nature due
to Gestalt effect. This can be explained through the example of understanding
love in a laboratory. Is it not a fact that by putting love under scientific
scrutiny, researchers have misunderstood it by destroying its mystery? In reality,
love includes affection and anger, excitement and boredom, stability and change,
bond and freedom, etc. All these cannot be understood by any scientific method.
As a result, those researchers, who have tried to know about it by using all
sorts of sophisticated instruments, have found it to be a triangle of which
the three sides represent physiological, psychological, and anthropological
But, outside the laboratory, the true love has emerged
as a circle which combines all the three kinds of factors into one. This combination
in equal proportion, as a whole, is known as spiritual love. This
is such a nice blend that no factor is trying to dominate upon the other one.
This kind of spiritual love cannot be analyzed in a laboratory but
can be experienced. Like this, every human behaviour needs to be effective (spiritual)
and needs to be understood finally by experience. And such experience is known
as Intuitive Experience.
Human Action: Behaviour or Karma?
For many of the Western researchers, human action is just a behaviour. But
for Indian thinkers, it is more than that - karma - which refers
to ones intention or motivation while doing an action. According to Tsering
(2004), intention is the most important of all mental events because it gives
direction to the mind, determining whether we engage with virtuous, non-virtuous,
or neutral objects. Just as iron is powerlessly drawn to a magnet, our minds
are powerlessly drawn to the object of our intentions.
Intention may be expressed
through either physical or verbal actions. Actually, Indian thinkers differentiate
between human and animal behaviours. They argue that in the case of animals,
instinct prevails, but in the case of human beings, reason prevails. Therefore,
only human beings - not animals - have the freedom and capacity to judge rightly
or wrongly about their behaviours. This exercise of judgement is known as karma
and this makes human life as the karma-bhumi:
Watch your thoughts, for they become words.
Watch your words, for they become actions.
Watch your actions, for they become habits.
Watch your habits, for they become character.
Watch your character, for it becomes your destiny.
How Karma Works
Karma is a Sanskrit word which literally means action. But it also signifies
cause and effect relationship. We believe in the divine statement: As
you sow, so you reap like the third law of Newton: Each action has
an equal and opposite reaction. We also believe that the soul travels
from one body to the next and the force that drives the process of rebirth of
the soul is an element of karma.
Thus, for Hindus and Buddhists, karma is the
mental and physical deeds that determine the effects of our life and rebirth
and can be consequences from our previous lives or from actions in this one.
Recently, some Western thinkers like Edgar Cayce, McArthur and Carmen Harra
have also started believing in the same way: Human beings come into a
body alone and when we shed our body we die alone. The only thing we take with
us are our memories, our karma (Harra, 2002).
This shows clearly that all of us are governed by the universal karmic
law and there is nothing by chance. Whether we realize it or not, every
day we are creating karma with every thought and action. Either we kill an insect,
abuse someone, or are jealous of a friend, we are creating bad karma. Similarly,
every single thing we do each day that is positive like helping a person, aiding
a beggar, or showing sympathy and love creates good karma.
In this sense, life
is a constant balancing act of offsetting the bad karmas with the good ones.
If we dont erase our bad karmas or heal them at the end of every day,
they will accumulate. Such accumulated karmas accumulated over time and
sometimes over many lifetimes work like the snowball effect.
They go on multiplying and multiplying. We, therefore, need to resolve negative
karmas every day by regular prayer (confession) and by more and more positive
acts. Otherwise, they will never be healed, and we have to live with the consequential
Our largest obstacle to understanding or even believing in karma may be time.
The 're-actions' or results of our actions show up with a time delay, and it
becomes extremely hard to tell which action caused which result. Actions done
in a previous life can create results in this life, but who can remember their
past lives? For ordinary humans, the mechanisms of karma can be intellectually
understood to some extent, but never completely "seen". However, every
mainstream religion teaches us about the consequences of our actions. The explanations
may differ, but does it really matter in the end whether the law of karma causes
us trouble or God Himself in His final judgement?
How do we accumulate karmic seeds? Every physical and verbal action is preceded
by mental activity. Goodwill motivates a kind gesture; ill will motivates nasty
words. Ill will is the intention to cause mental, emotional or physical harm.
Thus, before and during a bad action, ill will is present in our mind. The presence
of ill will before and during this act has an impact on the mind due to which
a certain potential is left behind.
This potential is a karmic seed, a seed
planted in our mind by physical, verbal or mental action. The strength or depth
of this seed is determined by a number of factors, including how strong our
intention is, whether we clearly understand what we are doing, whether we act
on our intention, and whether the physical and verbal action is completed. Seeds
will remain in the mind until they ripen or are destroyed. Seeds left by negative
mental events and actions can be destroyed by some opponent or antidotal powers.
The most important of these powers are regrets for the negative acts and a firm
resolve not to act that way again in the future.
Every thought and action creates memory and comes back either to bless or haunt
us. This is what makes us unique and composes our lives. It also creates a field
of information around us at the level of energy. We store this information in
our field like data in a computer. This data or memory is either positive or
negative. All the negative memory will resurface in our life again and again,
and the only way to move forward is to resolve it.
Reincarnation is thus one
opportunity to repair what we did wrong. It is an opportunity to come back and
repent, to ask for forgiveness and change what we did wrong. Life is thus a
process of introspecting our thoughts and actions and resolving the bad karmas
everyday. This can be achieved through purifying the mind and following the
Karmic Resolution Method as suggested by Harra (2002):
1. Deep Breathing: Breath not only gives life, it also creates
a bridge between the subconscious and conscious mind and connects the mind and
2. Memory Meditation: It is a powerful tool for allowing our
conscious mind to access what is at work in our subconscious mind.
3. Expanding Emotional Awareness: Sometimes we react in a
heightened way because of karmic memory or connection that is hidden in our
unconscious mind. Expanding awareness allows us to break the cycle of inappropriate
4. Recognizing and Breaking Negative Patterns: When we understand
which emotions are dominating our life and begin to view them objectively, we
may recognize some negative recurring patterns. Such patterns or grip which
they have on our life must be broken.
5. Restoring Equilibrium: We should use our conscious mind
as reprogramming of the subconscious mind by using imagery that replaces all
negative thoughts and beliefs with positive ones.
6. Designing a Vision for the Future: After breaking all negative
thoughts and emotions and replacing them by positive ones, we can begin to visualize
a new way of living.
7. Gathering Powerful Positive Energy: In order to create
a new reality we would need to recharge our batteries by tapping into the energy
of the Invisible World.
8. Affirmations for the New Reality: We need personal affirmations,
which should come from deep within, to reinforce our vision and keep the energy
of the Universe focused.
9. Prayers for Gratitude and Happiness: The most important
way of celebrating our new life is through acknowledging the universal life
force and kindness of God.
10. Recording and Tracking the Progress in a Journal: Writing
things regularly help to clarify our thoughts and record our progress on different
We should always remember that the Universe wants us to be happy and fulfilled
and to travel on the path of spirituality. There are many persons who have achieved
karmic success on this path only through regular prayer and meditation.
Intuitive Awareness: The Key to Understanding and Healthy Living
The term intuition means exactly what it sounds like in
tuition an inner tutor or teaching and learning mechanism that
takes us forward daily. The dictionary defines intuition as the perception
of truths, facts, etc. without reasoning; the immediate knowledge or learning
of something without the conscious use of reasoning; instantaneous apprehension
Swami Omkarananda (1999) also says Intuition is the immediate
knowledge of the Absolute, obtained through the eye of wisdom, as opposed to
the knowledge of the external objects derived through the exercise of the senses
and the intellect. It is truth obtained by internal apprehension, without the
aid of perception or the operation of the reasoning powers. It is a direct vision
and apprehension of the Divine Reality underlying the manifested and the unmanifested
That means, it is a process which perceives things without relying
on the senses and gives us a kind of creative awareness by interpreting all
the information in a holistic way (Sharan, 2005b). Seale (2002) has rightly
said, Intuition is spiritual energy, not psychic energy. Psychic energy
is purely mental energy, and limited to mental energy, while spiritual energy
embraces the totality of the universe. Spiritual energy acknowledges that there
is profound knowledge and wisdom available when we become one with Spirit or
the universal consciousness. Intuition is thus both a vehicle for profound
spiritual knowledge and for success and enjoyment in our daily lives.
Seale (2002) maintains further that intuitive awareness is a gift of talent
which every one has to some degree and which can be developed to guide and direct
our lives in powerful and transformative ways. Just as we develop other gifts
and talents for use in daily lives, it is our responsibility to fully develop
our own intuitive gifts in order to be true partners with Spirit in the co-creation
of our lives. Even Einstein, one of the towering intellects of modern time,
remarked once that The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational
mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honours the servant
and has forgotten the gift.
Intuitive awareness thus simply means living life superconsciously. When we
live our lives mindlessly or with ordinary mind, we begin to take on the attributes
of whatever is around us, both positive and negative, being easily swayed by
the forces and opinions of others. But when we live mindfully with full
attention given to each and every moment in our life we begin to glow
in our own light and truth. We come to know who we are, what our life purpose
is, what our real motivation is, and what gives us passion. We begin to step
into our own power and strength, and develop as individuals with unique gifts
and talents (Sumedho, 2004).
In the Buddhist tradition, there is actually a practice called mindfulness.
Mindfulness is simply focusing our attention on wherever we are and whatever
we are doing at each moment. It is a state of becoming fully awake to who we
are, what we think and feel, what the present moment is about, and clearly seeing
our view of the world. It is thus a heightened state of awareness, opening us
to the full spectrum of possibilities. This practice of mindfulness or
conscious living is an important step toward focusing our lives and developing
intuitive awareness. The more we can focus our full attention on where we are
and what we are doing in any given moment, the more we become fully aware of
all that is there for us (Seale, 2002).
Many belief systems teach that staying present or being mindful
is the basic principle behind inner peace and contentment which leads to intuitive
awareness. Being mindful means giving full concentration to whatever we are
doing in the present, having no real awareness of anything else, becoming completely
absorbed, lost in the activity and the moment.
According to Clare (2003), this
experience of the moment means we are more likely to notice things around us
This suggests that intuitive awareness comes to a person only when he or she
has the intuitive state of mind. It involves more than simply going with
our gut or trusting our hunches. It is also not synchronicity.
It prompts a person to think in certain ways that create the results which contribute
to well being, allowing synchronicity to manifest (Denning, 2001).
English (2002) also maintain that by paying attention to the thoughts, feelings,
and images that come to mind, we are learning to tune into our intuition which
is a natural gift born in everyone. But it becomes most effective in a person
who learns to develop The Intuitive Heart by caring and loving his/her
own inner self and of others. In order to have the intuitive awareness through
the intuitive heart, they suggest the following six steps:
1. Learn from Your Breath to Trust Your Intuitive Inspiration:
Focus on your breathing and discover how you can trust it to flow naturally,
spontaneously, with no effort or control on your part. Intuitive inspiration
will come to you automatically.
2. Make the Heart Connection: Let gratitude fill your heart,
allowing you to release all concerns. Your heart energy naturally begins to
expand. Focus it on the target of your search for intuition.
3. Invite a Memory: Ask for one of your millions of personal
memories to pop into your mind. Without intentionally choosing it, but accepting
the first one that comes, trust that within your heart is stored the perfect
memory that is right for this occasion.
4. Tell Your Story: Explore the experience that surrounds
that memory. Let your memory be the seed of a story heres what
was going on, heres what happened, heres how it turned out.
5. Search Your Heart for Wisdom: See what lessons your story
holds. What truth does it contain? What did you learn from that experience?
What does this story teach you today?
6. Learn from Feedback: Note how the teaching story relates
to the focus of your quest for intuition. How can you use this new perspective
to respond to your current situation differently?
We cannot deny the fact that psychology developed out of philosophical speculations
as to the nature of man when these came to be influenced by the advances in
the biological sciences. From this union, psychology retained a philosophical,
speculative character and a dualistic mind/body approach to behaviour and mental
life. Watson tried to make it a division of natural science by dropping
experience from its definition and his behaviourism emerged
as the methodology which dominated academic psychology for the next half-century.
But, in spite of its extensive and remarkably enduring influence, it warranted
criticism. Today, with general acceptance, it has been defined again as the
scientific study of both human behaviour and human experience. This has definitely
broadened the scope of psychology and has made us realize that the science
of psychology cannot exclude experience from its study.
However, it is also a fact that if psychology has now come of age, it is because
it has achieved a more adequate form of knowledge (Gillham, 1976).
Today, psychologists construct theories that organize observations and imply
testable hypotheses. To describe, predict, and explain behaviour and mental
processes, they use several methods like Introspection, Naturalistic Observation,
Questionnaire and Survey, Case Study, Correlation, and Experimentation.
Not only that, they are also trying seriously to capture consciousness or spirituality
in their studies. Whether described as inner journey or enlightenment
or wisdom, it is a domain attracting unprecedented interest and
psychologists are rushing to fill the void. According to Hoffman (2002), In
coming years, well surely see scientific validation on the connection
between our spiritual well-being at work and our highest productivity, involving
both mind and body. Undoubtedly, the task of assessing intrinsic spirituality
will play an increasingly vital role in that domain.
Now, the question is: How to study spirituality or consciousness in psychology?
With the available methods listed above, it may perhaps be difficult to understand
the issue and discern the truth. Every method has been found to be suffering
from certain limitations. Even the experimental method, which is considered
to be the ultimate method of psychology today, is subject to certain serious
constraints. For many thoughtful students the idea of applying science
to human affairs raises concerns about how well experiments relate to life,
how experimenters treat human and animal subjects, and how psychologists
values influence their work and its applications (Myers, 1995).
In such situation, as suggested by many Indian thinkers like Radhakrishnan (McDermott,
1970), Omkarananda (1999), and now being supported by a good number of Western
researchers (e.g., Coleman, 2000; Denning, 2001; Fitz, 2001; Seale, 2002; Clare,
2003; Peirce, 2005), psychologists need to realize the importance of Intuition
as a method of psychology. This will help not only in understanding of the Superconscious
Mind and effective (spiritual) behaviour of the human beings but also in getting
the truth obtained through other methods.
It has been rightly said that without
following intuition, intellectuals will remain imperfect and divided, and blind
to the truth behind the appearances. Intuition is the only way by which
the Absolute can be realized and experienced in all its totality. The mortal,
finite, limited senses and the intellect cannot comprehend the Reality which
is immortal and all-pervading (Omkarananda, 1999). This is the reason
why all Courses in Miracles are teaching today to have regular prayer
(how to talk to God) and meditation (how to listen to God) to have His Grace
for developing Intuitive Mind. We all have this system in place but,
the irony is, we have not yet learned how to use it fully.
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